Surgical methods done to lower body weight are referred to as “Bariatric Surgery” also we can say weight loss surgery. It has been demonstrated to be the exclusive method of treating morbid obesity. Guidelines for bariatric surgery were created by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus in 1991 for patients with BMIs greater than 35 kg/m2 and severe obesity-related comorbidities, as well as for BMIs greater than 40 kg/m2 with or without comorbidities.
These recommendations are particularly severe for Asian patients because it has been found that Asians (including Indians) have a higher percentage of body fat than their Caucasian counterparts and are more susceptible to metabolic problems linked to obesity. For Asians, the recommended BMI ranges for bariatric surgery are 32.5 kg/m2 or higher with severe obesity-related comorbidity and 37.5 kg/m2 or higher with or without comorbidity. The two main categories of bariatric surgery are malabsorptive and restrictive.
Bariatric surgery is a type of weight loss surgery that involves modifying the stomach and/or the small intestine to assist patients in losing weight.
Individuals with a BMI of 40 or higher, or a BMI of 35 or higher with obesity-related health conditions such as type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, or sleep apnea, are typically recommended for bariatric surgery.
There are several types of bariatric surgery, including:
– Gastric Bypass,
– Sleeve Gastrectomy,
– Adjustable Gastric Banding
– Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch
– Revisional Surgery
Bariatric surgery works by either limiting the amount of food that the stomach can hold or altering the way food is digested and absorbed in the body.
Bariatric surgery, like any other surgery, has risks such as bleeding, infection, and blood clots. However, the benefits can be substantial, including weight loss, improvements in obesity-related health conditions, and an overall higher quality of life.
Pre-Operative and Post-Operative Care:
Patients undergoing bariatric surgery must be carefully evaluated and prepared prior to surgery. They need close follow-up and support after surgery to ensure proper healing and to help them achieve their weight loss goals.
Changes in Lifestyle:
Bariatric surgery is not a miracle cure for obesity. To maintain their weight loss and improve their health, patients must make significant lifestyle changes, such as eating a healthy diet and engaging in regular physical activity.
Gastric Bypass Surgery:
Gastric bypass is one of the most common types of bariatric surgery fat loss surgery. It entails making a small pouch at the top of the stomach and redirecting the small intestine to it. This reduces the amount of food that can be held in the stomach and the number of calories and nutrients that the body can absorb.
Another type of bariatric surgery is sleeve gastrectomy, which involves removing a portion of the stomach to create a smaller, banana-shaped stomach. This reduces the amount of food that can be held in the stomach and reduces hunger by lowering the level of the hunger hormone ghrelin.
Gastric Banding that can be Adjusted:
Adjustable gastric banding involves wrapping a small pouch around the top of the stomach with an adjustable band. The band can be tightened or loosened to control the amount of food that can be held in the stomach.
Duodenal Switch Biliopancreatic Diversion:
Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch is a more complicated type of bariatric surgery that entails a sleeve gastrectomy as well as rerouting the small intestine to the remaining portion of the stomach. This surgery results in greater weight loss than other types of bariatric surgery, but it also carries a higher risk of complications.
Revisional bariatric surgery is a type of bariatric surgery performed on patients who have previously had weight loss surgery but have experienced complications or are not meeting their weight loss goals.
Patients undergo a thorough psychological evaluation before undergoing bariatric surgery to ensure that they are mentally prepared for the significant lifestyle changes required for long-term success.
Groups of Support:
Many bariatric surgery programmes provide pre- and post-surgery support groups. These groups offer patients education, resources, and emotional support to help them reach their weight loss goals and live a healthy lifestyle.
Although bariatric surgery can result in significant weight loss and improvements in obesity-related health conditions, long-term success is contingent on patients making significant lifestyle changes and adhering to follow-up care and support.